PHYSICS Mass UNIVERSE UA. Kong Gravitational Force UB. Sun UC. Earth UE. Black Hole UF. Life of Universe UG. Properties of Universe UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy UG. PROPERTIES OF UNIVERSE 1. Constants and Rules 2. Conservation of Energy 3. Boundary of Universe 4. Flat Universe 5. Moving Objects 6. Frame of References INTRODUCTION   Until today, there are still many un-resolved mysteries about the Universe. In this chapter, some interesting properties of Universe will be discussed, such as the natural laws that governing the Universe.   We will also discuss on the boundary of Universe, the shape of Universe, and the energy conservation in the Universe.     OBJECTIVES   1)      To summarize the ingredients, constants, natural laws and rules that governs and appears since          the existence of the Universe. 2)      To discuss on the energy conservation in overall activities in the Universe. 3)      To describe the boundary and the shape of Universe. 4)      To describe and explain some phenomena observed in the Universe. UG.1.0        CONSTANTS AND RULES   Since the existence of Universe, there are certain ingredients, constants, natural laws and rules are fixed.   The ingredients of Universe are, a)      Charge b)      Magnetic c)      Time d)      Length   Since the beginning of Universe right after Big Bang, certain constants are fixed. They are, a)      speed of light b)      plank’s constants c)      permeability constant d)      permittivity constant e)      charge   Some of the natural laws and rules are also fixed when the Universe appears, they are a)      right-hand rule b)      Coulomb’s law c)      Faraday’s law of induction d)      Ampere-Maxwell law e)      Gauss law for electricity and magnetism f)        quantum mechanics g)      special relativity   These ingredients, constants, natural laws and rules play very important role in determining the activities in the Universe. UG.2.0        CONSERVATION OF ENERGY   Big Bang (BB) is the beginning of Universe with the reference time of zero. During BB, the kinetic-time-energy of gamma rays is transformed to potential-time-energy of mass, which are the electrons and positrons in equal amount. This process is similar to pair production. The created electrons and positrons are spinning at the speed of light.   Energy is conserved in the Universe from beginning until ending, which adheres to the relativity grand total energy equation. Figure UG.2.1 below illustrates the process of energy conservation. Figure UG.2.1     UG.2.1        Beginning of Universe   Point A is the beginning of Universe. At time zero, all the kinetic-time-energy is converted to potential-time-energy. The universe is full of positrons and electrons. The expansion happens at the speed of light and the universe obtains a volume. The positrons and electrons produced are arranged alternatively in a mesh of sphere symmetrically.   Once mass is produced, the Universe obtains a volume which is defined by the M&E field of the charge particles. The total energy is represented by the solid line, OA, which is equal to E. The entire kinetic-time-energy is converted to potential-time-energy.     UG.2.2        Ending of Mass Formation   Point B is the ending of mass formation. Between point A and B, the expansion of universe decreases the magnetic field; the decrease in magnetic field induces and enriches the positrons to become bigger particles, where bigger particle contains higher M&E components.   When the last hydrogen atom is formed, the remaining positrons and electrons undergo annihilation process. The potential-time-energy of mass decreases and the kinetic-time-energy of wave increases. The total energy is represented by the solid blue line, OB, which is equal to E.     UG.2.3        Current Universe   Point C is located between point D and F, which is after certain time of the creation of Universe. Stars are formed; galaxies and solar systems are formed. Radioactive decay, nuclear fission and thermonuclear fusion reactions are taking parts. Nuclear reactions are releasing the ‘stored’ energy back to Universe. Potential-time-energy is converted into kinetic-time-energy. ‘E’ is the total energy of the system, which represents the relativity grand total energy equation as follow,   E2 = (hf)2 + (mc2)2                                                                  ... eq. UG.2.1   The kinetic-time-energy, hf, is the combination of electromagnetic wave energy and kinetic energy of matters.   The expansion rate of universe is reducing. The expansion is decelerating until it stops. The total energy is represented by the solid red line, OC, which is equal to E.     UG.2.4        Contraction of Universe   Point D is somewhere near the contraction of Universe. When most of the matters are fused into iron ashes, the strength of magnetic field becomes very weak. The outermost of magnetic quantum is collapsing, Universe stops expanding and contraction begins.   When mass keeps on reducing, the magnetic field becomes weaker and weaker, the angular velocity keeps accelerating and the contraction is also accelerating from zero velocity.   The total energy is represented by the solid green line, OD, which is equal to E. The kinetic-time-energy is higher than potential-time-energy.     UG.2.5        Ending of Universe   Point F is the stage before ending of Universe. Black hole has been growing and accreting the objects surrounding it, including smaller black holes. The temperature is very hot due to the remaining nuclear reactions; the remaining substances are fused to iron ashes.   Interactions between photons and electrons happen greatly. Under high temperature condition, collision of particles destroys the M&E structure of the remaining substances and produces photon and positrons. This is similar to the particles collision process as described in chapter “Particles and Waves”. Positrons annihilate with electrons to produce gamma photons. The gamma photons activate other electrons and encourage collisions.   The total energy is represented by the solid magenta line, OF, which is equal to E. Almost all of the potential-time-energy is converted to kinetic-time-energy. Kinetic-time-energy refers to the combination of gamma rays and kinetic energy of remaining particles.     UG.2.6        Revival of Universe   Point A’ is the end of Universe. Missing of mass causes rapid contraction, until the last positron annihilates with the last electron. Once the annihilation process of positrons and electrons completes, the Universe becomes volumetric-less, the Universe contracts at the speed of light to a point. The total energy is represented by the solid line, OA’, which is equal to E. All the potential-time-energy is converted into kinetic-time-energy of gamma rays.   The ending is the beginning, the Universe is revived. The process from point A’ to A happens at the speed of light which has no time reference.   The energy is conserved for the whole activities in Universe. UG.3.0       BOUNDARY OF UNIVERSE   It is observed that the objects in the Universe are moving away from us. Therefore, the Universe is expanding. The expansion rate of the Universe is lower than the speed of light; otherwise, light from another star or galaxy will never reach us and we will not able to observe another star or galaxy.   If the Universe is not expanding at the speed of light, what will happen to the electromagnetic wave and the high energy particles which their speed is higher than the expansion rate?     UG.3.1        Gaussian Surface   Once the mass is produced, the Universe obtains a volume which is defined by the M&E field of the charge particles. The initial volume shall be a sphere, when time passes, the volume expanded into ellipsoid and a disk today.   Figure UG.3.1 illustrates the expanded volume of the Universe in ellipsoidal shape. Figure UG.3.1   The outer-most surface of the Universe is the boundary of the Universe, which is also a Gaussian surface. The definition of outer-most surface is the lowest quantized magnetic gauss line, which corresponds to the highest quantized energy level. From chapter “Kong Atom Model”, the quantized energy is given as follow, … eq. UG.3.1 where   n = principal quantum number = 1 for lowest             q = accumulated charge of charged particles             me = electron mass             e = electron charge             K = Kong function             h = Plank’s constant             εo = permittivity constant     This surface is the Gaussian surface that encloses all the charges and the superimposed magnetic field of charged particles in the Universe. This Gaussian surface adheres to the Gauss law for electricity and magnetism. The sum of electric and magnetic field that penetrates through this surface is zero.   The possible highest energy electrons are orbiting the Universe at this boundary, where the electrons possess the highest escape energy. Electrons may drop to lower energy level by emitting electromagnetic wave.     UG.3.2        Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation   The electromagnetic wave is totally reflected at the Universe’s boundary because of beyond this boundary, there is no travel medium for wave, which is required by the wave as described in chapter “Fundamental of Wave”.   Wave is reflected to and fro, unable to escape from the boundary and the energy is remained within the boundary. The earliest photons that generated in the Universe are gamma rays. This stage is illustrated by point B in figure UG.2.1.   The early generated gamma rays travel to and fro, totally reflected on the boundary. When the Universe expands, the photons energy reduces due to interaction with particles in the space. They lose energy by reducing frequencies and become the cosmic microwave background radiation today. The temperature of the Universe is determined by this radiation. UG.4.0        FLAT UNIVERSE   The Universe is observed to be flat today. From chapter “Kong Gravitational Force”, the actual force that governs the activities in the Universe is the electromagnetic force. The electrostatic force causes the object to circulate around a charged body while the magnetic force causes the object to circulate at the equator.   The initial shape of the Universe shall be spherical during the Big Bang. When the charged particles start to rotate in the Universe, the moving charged particles produce elongated magnetic field which is illustrated in figure UG.3.1.   The elongated magnetic field possesses the highest strength at the equator. When the objects are circulating in the elongated magnetic field, the magnetic force pushes the objects fall to the equator in order to achieve lower energy level. The magnetic field is very strong during initial stage of the Universe and become weaker when the Universe expands.   The Universe then expands in radial direction at the equator until it becomes a disk as it is today. Surface Ac from figure UG.3.1 is the cross sectional surface at the equator of the magnetic field. When the Universe expands, the surface Ac expands. The expansion rate for Ac is lower than the expansion rate of Gaussian surface, AG. UG.5.0        MOVING OBJECTS   When the Universe expands, the objects are moving horizontally outward further and further. The Universe is flat in shape like a disk. The objects are moving away from each other.   When stars are formed, some localized changes occur due to the charge of the stars. Stars possess strong M&E field at its localized area. Objects surrounding a star or come near to a star will be attracted by the localized strong electromagnetic force, and thus circulating around the star.   When numbers of objects revolve around a star, a rotating system like the Solar system is formed. When numbers of solar systems are circulating a bigger star, a galaxy is formed. The Universe contains numbers of galaxies, which are rotating around its center.   As described in chapter “Kong Matter and Kong Energy”, the rotation movement of objects in the Universe is accelerating due to the Kong energy. Light from other galaxies are observed to be moving away from us in acceleration rate.     UG.5.1        Repulsive Force   Beside the rotation effect, localized repulsive force may occur between stars. As stars are negative charged, they exact a repulsive force between stars. The repulsive force causes the stars are moved away in acceleration, finding a more stable location in the huge Universe. UG.6.0        FRAME OF REFERENCES   Since humans discover about physics, some references are made base on the observations and some measurements are decided such as time and length. These measurements were fixed by the humans to study the Universe and these had been adopted for the study on physics.   For measurement of length or space, the reference of zero refers to a point where everything begins.   For measurement of time, the beginning of Universe since the Big Bang, the time reference is zero and proceeds thereafter.   For measurement of speed, the ultimate speed is the speed of light. The speed is measured in relation to the speed of light which related to the special relativity theory. Process that happens at the speed of light has no time delay.   For measurement of energy level, the reference of boundary of Universe is taken to be zero, which is the highest energy level. For energy level lower than that is considered to be negative value.   For measurement of electricity charge, the reference is neutral or zero for the Earth. Whichever more positive charge than the Earth is positive charged and lower positive charge than the Earth is negative charged. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS   The ingredients, some constants, natural laws and rules are fixed since the appearance of the Universe. All these are the properties of Universe which governing all the activities.   Energy cannot be destroyed or vanished, but can be transfer from one form to another form. The total energy of Universe is conserved throughout the whole life of Universe. Energy is transformed from kinetic-time-energy to potential-time-energy and from potential-time-energy to kinetic-time-energy according to the total grand energy equation.   The universe possesses a boundary which determined by the highest energy level or the lowest magnetic gauss line. The cosmic microwave radiation background is produced during the ending of mass formation process and related to the temperature of Universe. The shape of the current universe is flat like a disk due to the effect of electromagnetic forces.   Objects are moving away from us due to the expansion of Universe. Stars are moving away from us in acceleration due to the repulsive force between stars, which are negative in charge.   References are made and decided by humans, which had been adopted for the studies of physics. These references can be changed or modified.

This website is originated on 15-Mar-2007,

updated on 4-Jan-2009.